What Are They?
· Electronic Cigarettes are tobacco free products that use battery power to heat up liquid in the place of tobacco. Also known as e-cigarettes, e-cigs, and vapors, these mechanisms are actually vaporizers. When the liquid heats up it turns into vapor, which is inhaled. Some argue that there are many health advantages over traditional cigarettes, however there is currently not much research on e-cigarettes. Therefore it is difficult to know what potential health risks or benefits there are, or even the amounts of chemicals that are entering your body once you inhale the vapor. While it is true that e-cigarettes are tobacco free, they are not nicotine free. The typical combination of liquid that is in an e-cigarette is nicotine, flavorings, and propylene glycol. Some mixtures are known to have more nicotine than a traditional cigarette.
· One of the main health concerns with e-cigarettes that have been expressed is the dangers that surround liquid nicotine. To produce this lethal liquid, nicotine is extracted from tobacco leaves. There is potential for harm when it is inhaled, but it can also be harmful when ingested and when absorbed through the skin. It only takes one tablespoon to have deadly affects if ingested by an adult and as little as a teaspoon if swallowed by a child. The Food and Drug Administration has also found that it is common for manufactures not to fully or correctly disclose the ingredients within their products. An example of this is the amount of nicotine listed on the cartridges is much lower than what is actually found after testing. The FDA has also found diethylene glycol within the nicotine liquid mixture, which is a toxic chemical also found in antifreeze.
Smoking Electronic Cigarettes in Public
· When electronic cigarettes were first produced they were advertised as tobacco free and therefore smoking these vapors was legal in all public spaces because they did not admit smoke. With a lack of research on e-cigarettes and their health risks the Food and Drug Administration has not yet decided if where they can be used will be regulated. However this has not stopped states and cities throughout the country to passing laws to restrict public smoking of electronic cigarettes. Currently, Arizona does not have a state-wide law regulating where smoking is and is not allowed. However cities within the state have begun to pass regulations over e-cigarettes. Currently there are three cities that ban/ regulate the use of e-cigarettes. As of August 2014, Tempe banned the use of e-cigarettes in all public places and shortly after the town of Guadeloupe passed a similar ordinance. Just a few months later the city of Gilbert banned e-cigarettes in enclosed city owned buildings.
Who Can Use and Buy Electronic Cigarettes
· In the state of Arizona, it is illegal for a minor to possess, buy, or be given an electronic cigarette under Arizona Revised Statue 13-3622. Under this statue if a minor attempts to misrepresent his age in hopes of purchasing or is simply in possession of an e-cigarette they will be guilty of a petty crime and responsible to pay a fine of no more than five hundred dollars and not less than one hundred dollars or preform not less than thirty hours of community restitution.
Shoplifting is more than just leaving a store with something you did not pay for. Shoplifting is also obtaining goods by charging the purchase price of an item to a fictitious person; paying less than the purchase price of the item by changing the labels in some way; moving the item to a different container; and hiding the item in some way from view. (A.R.S. § 13-1805).
If you are a minor, your parents or legal guardian can be held responsible for any damages that you caused. (A.R.S. § 12-661). Shoplifting property with a value of more than $2,000 is a class 5 felony. Shoplifting with a value of less than $250.00 is a class 1 misdemeanor.
If you are found guilty of shoplifting, you could be fined, have to perform community service, or be placed on probation with up to one year in detention. (A.R.S. § 13-1805) If found guilty of shoplifting you might also be required to pay a penalty of $100.00 in addition to the actual damages to the owner (the price of what you took). (A.R.S. § 12-692)
Beware of the serious consequences of committing any of the following sex offenses in the State of Arizona:
- Sexual conduct with a minor (A.R.S. § 13-1405)
- Sexual abuse (A.R.S. § 13-1404)
- Sexual assault (A.R.S. § 13-1406)
Under Arizona law, sexual conduct is when a person intentionally or knowingly engages in sexual intercourse or oral sexual contact with a person under 18 years of age. Sexual conduct with a minor 15, 16 or 17 years old is class 6 felony. Sexual conduct with a minor under fifteen years of age is a class 2 felony.
If you are a juvenile, and the victim is under 15 years, the county attorney has the discretion to bring adult charges against you (see Juvenile Justice). If the victim is 15 years or older, the county attorney has the option of asking a judge to allow him to bring adult charges against you. If a parent, stepparent, adoptive parent, legal guardian or foster parent engages in sexual conduct with a minor the person will be charged with a class 2 felony and could carry a prison term of 3 to 27 years maximum sentence (A.R.S. § 13-604.01).
Sexual assault is when a person intentionally or knowingly engages in sexual intercourse or oral sexual contact with any person without consent of such a person and is a class 2 felony. In the State of Arizona, a person under the age of 18 years old cannot consent to sexual intercourse or oral sexual contact. A first time offense can lead to a prison term from 5.2 to 14 years.
Sexual abuse is intentionally or knowingly engaging in sexual contact with any person 15 years of age of older without consent of that person or with any person which is under 15 years of age if the sexual contact involves only the female breast. If the victim is 15 years or older it is a class 5 felony. If the victim is under 15 years of age, it is a class 3 felony.
If a juvenile is at least 15 years of age or older and commits a class 3 or higher felony sex offense, the juvenile will be tried as an adult. One such offense is forcible sexual assault which means if you use immediate or threaten to use immediate force during the commission of a sexual offense, you will automatically be tired in adult court. Once tried as an adult, always tried as an adult for any other crime even if you are a juvenile.
If a juvenile is under 15 years of age and commits a class 3 or higher felony sex offense, it is at the discretion of the county attorney to request a transfer of juvenile to adult court. If you commit a crime and are under fourteen years old, the county attorney must petition the court to request a transfer hearing.
If you need help, call one of these crisis hotlines:
- Child Help USA Hotline 800-422-4453
- Child Protective Services 888-SOS-CHILD or 888-767-2445
- Pregnancy Hotline 800-848-5683
- Youth Crisis Hotline 800-448-4663
What is Curfew?
Curfew is how late you can legally stay outside in a public place. The State of Arizona allows each city to set curfews, and they can be different from place to place. If you violate curfew you may be ticked, have to pay a fine or do community service or held at the police station while a parent or guardian is called. Your parent or guardian is also susceptible to being cited for your violation of curfew laws. Curfews are often different on weekends and weeknights and are often different if you are under the age of 16 or under the age of 18.
Each city enforces its own laws and those of the State. A city’s law is sometimes called a 'Municipal Code' or 'City Code.’ Curfew times vary from city to city within Arizona. Your best source for the curfew law in your city is your local police department or city attorney’s office. You may also search a municipal code web site for more information. Generally, you can be out past curfew only if you:
- Are with your parent or guardian;
- Are with an adult and have prior permission from your parent or guardian;
- You are traveling to another state in a motor vehicle and have permission from your parent or guardian;
- You are going or returning from work by the most direct route without any detours or stops;
- You are involved in an emergency or have prior permission from your parent or guardian and are engaged in a reasonable, legitimate, and specific business and/or activity;
- You have prior permission from your parent or guardian, and engaged in a reasonable exercise of your First Amendment Rights protected by the United States Constitution;
- You are married and 16 years of age or over, or in the military, are on the sidewalk in front of your house or on the next-door neighbor's property with their consent.
Possible consequences if curfew is violated:
- Some police departments issue tickets for violating curfew
- Some may give you a warning or take you to the police station and call your parents
- You may have to pay a fine or do community service and have a juvenile record
- Your parents or guardian may have to pay a fine, do community service
- Both you and your parents may be found guilty of a misdemeanor.
A sample of some curfew laws for selected cities:
Casa Grande: Age 15 and under (every day, including weekends) : 10:00 p.m. to 5:00 a.m.; 16 -18 years (every day, including weekends) : Midnight to 5:00 a.m.
Chandler: Age 15 and under: 10 p.m. to 5:00 a.m. (every day, including weekends); Ages 16-18 years: Midnight to 5:00 a.m. (every day including weekends). Juveniles are allowed out after the specified times if they are accompanied by a parent, legal guardian, or spouse, or have written permission from the same. Curfew is considered 'over' at 5 a.m.
Clarkdale/Cottonwood: Age 15 under: 10:00 p.m. to 5:00 a.m. every day, including weekends; Age 16 -17: Midnight to 5:00 a.m. every day, including weekends.
Mesa: Age 16 or younger: 10 p.m. to 5:00 a.m. every day, including weekends; Age 16-18: 12 am midnight to 5:00 a.m. every day, including weekends; Violating this law is a misdemeanor, and the penalties include a maximum fine of $2,500.00 or imprisonment for up to six (6) months, or both.
Phoenix (including the Ahwatukee area): Under age 16: 10 p.m. to 5:00 AM every day, including weekends; Age 16-18: 12 am midnight to 5:00 a.m. every day, including weekends
Peoria: Age 15 or under: 10:00 p.m. to 5:00 AM every day, including weekends; Age 16 -18: 12:00 to 5:00 a.m. every day, including weekends. Violating Peoria’s curfew law is a misdemeanor, and the penalties include a fine of $50 to $150 plus fees with mandatory community service or educational programs. Parents found guilty of allowing their kids to stay out past curfew are guilty of a class one misdemeanor too, and can be fined $100-$250. Parents might also have to pay extra fees related to the City's court costs and might have to perform community service, counseling, educational programs or even be placed on probation.
Scottsdale: Age 15 and under: 10:00 p.m. to 5:00 a.m. every day, including weekends; Age 16 -18: 12:00 to 5:00 a.m. every day, including weekends.
Tucson: Age 16 years or younger: 10 p.m. to 5:00 a.m. every day, including weekends; Age 16-18: midnight to 5:00 a.m. every day, including weekends. In addition, minors younger than 16 cannot remain, loiter or cruise in any vehicle in the county or its unincorporated areas between 10 p.m. and 5 a.m. The same law applies to 16- and 17-year-olds, between midnight and 5 a.m. The fine for a curfew violation is $25 for the first violation, up to $50 for the second violation, and up to $75 for the third violation.
Your best source for the curfew law in your city is your local police department or city attorney’s office. You may also search an external Municipal Code web site for more city codes.